Lesson 2: The concept of sustainability and the circular economy

  • logical and technological materials is a key aspect of the circular economy. Biodegradable materials can return to nature, while non-degradable ones can be refurbished or recycled.
  • Consumers can move away from ownership and opt for enjoying the services provided by products, such as leasing or renting, which can reduce costs and promote reuse.
  • The circular economy prioritizes environmental and human well-being by minimizing toxic materials, reducing energy and water consumption, and increasing renewable energy usage.
  • Transitioning to a circular economy requires changes at the systemic level, including shifts in market mechanisms, consumption patterns, legislation, and tax frameworks.
  • Many companies have already started innovating towards a circular economy, emphasizing product development, technical innovation, and business practices.
  • Collaboration among companies, even across sectors, is essential for success in the circular economy, as it promotes competition based on cooperation.


  • Understanding sustainability and the circular economy is crucial for addressing modern environmental and societal challenges.
  • Sustainability seeks to balance the needs of the present with the well-being of future generations.
  • The circular economy focuses on extending the life of products, minimizing waste, and rethinking consumption.
  • Transitioning to a circular economy requires a shift in systemic factors and increased cooperation among companies and sectors.

Read the textbook from page 8-25. You can find the textbooks’s content on this link.

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