Lesson Overview: In this lesson, we will explore the concept of Best Available Techniques (BATs) and their role in promoting efficient and environmentally responsible industrial practices. We will examine the practical methodology used to define BATs, considering various factors and criteria to determine the most effective techniques for environmental protection.

Lesson Objectives: By the end of this lesson, learners will be able to:

  1. Understand the definition of Best Available Techniques (BATs) and their significance in environmental protection.
  2. Explore the components of the practical methodology used to identify BATs.
  3. Analyze factors and criteria involved in the evaluation of alternative techniques for their environmental impact and cost-effectiveness.

Lesson Content:

  1. Definition of Best Available Techniques (BATs)

BATs are defined as the most efficient and advanced state of development of activities, technologies, and their operations that demonstrate practical suitability in controlling emissions and preventing environmental impact. BATs aim to achieve high levels of environmental protection by considering emissions monitoring, prevention, and reduction while adhering to the integrated permit conditions.

2. Practical Methodology for Defining BATs

a. Scope and Identification of Alternative Techniques:

  • Consult BREF documents (Best Available Techniques Reference Documents).
  • Consider location-specific factors, such as height above equipment.
  • Include techniques not covered by existing BREF documents.

b. Preparation of Emissions Register and Sources Use:

  • Identify significant emissions and resource usage.
  • Assess changes within emission types.
  • Consider bioaccumulation and synergistic effects.

c. Estimation of Environmental Effects:

  • Weigh effects based on proximity to environmental standards.

d. Identification of Techniques Offering High Environmental Protection:

  • Assess all sources with equal weight or consider specific factors.
  • Evaluate long-term versus short-term impacts.
  • Consider global warming potential and waste/resource use.
  • Account for factors like odour, vibration, noise, etc.

e. Definition of Costs for Individual Alternative Techniques:

  • Consider the contents and basis of cost estimation.
  • Account for economic assumptions, such as amortisation period.

f. Evaluation of All Possible Alternatives:

  • Analyze parameters such as rapidly increasing costs and reference costs for pollutants.



Best Available Techniques (BATs) are crucial for achieving efficient and environmentally responsible industrial practices. Their definition involves considering a wide range of factors and criteria to identify the most effective techniques for environmental protection. By following the practical methodology outlined in this lesson, industries can align their operations with BATs, ensuring sustainable development and reducing environmental impact. The integration of BATs as part of an integrated approach emphasizes their importance in safeguarding water, land, and air, leading to a better future for the environment and society as a whole.

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