Lesson 4: Stages of a lifecycle

Lesson: Stages of a Lifecycle

In this lesson, we explore the key stages in the lifecycle of products and their environmental impact.


  • In this step, raw materials, including minerals, metals, and fuels, are acquired from natural resources like mines, forests, and oil fields.
  • Negative environmental effects at this stage include carbon emissions, soil erosion, water pollution, and habitat degradation.


  • During this phase, raw materials are refined and transformed into finished goods using various manufacturing techniques like casting, molding, machining, and assembly.
  • Environmental impact includes energy consumption, water use, greenhouse gas emissions, and the production of hazardous waste.


  • This phase involves the movement of materials between facilities, such as factories, warehouses, and distribution centers, along with the transportation of finished goods, waste, and products.
  • Environmental impact encompasses energy use, air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions.


  • At this stage, the product is in use, requiring maintenance and repairs to ensure continuous functionality.
  • Environmental effects involve energy consumption, water use, and waste production.


  • When a product reaches the end of its useful life, this stage involves recycling or reusing it.
  • This stage has a positive impact on the environment by using fewer resources, less energy, and producing fewer waste products. It’s also a link back to the raw material consumption stage, as secondary raw materials can be extracted.


  • Finally, the product or its components are disposed of in landfills, incinerators, or other waste management facilities.
  • Environmental effects may include soil and water pollution and the emission of greenhouse gases.


The lifecycle of a product involves several stages, from raw material extraction to disposal.

Each stage has specific environmental impacts, from habitat degradation in extraction to waste production during use and disposal.

Recycling and reuse at the end of the lifecycle have a positive environmental effect by reducing resource consumption.

Go back